Home computer games became popular following the video game crash of 1983, particularly in Europe, leading to the era of the "bedroom coder". From the mid-90s onwards, PC games lost mass-market traction to console games before enjoying a resurgence in the mid-2000s through digital distribution. The uncoordinated nature of the PC game market and its lack of physical media make precisely assessing its size difficult. As 3D graphics libraries such as DirectX and OpenGL matured and knocked proprietary interfaces out of the market, these platforms gained greater acceptance in the market, particularly with their demonstrated benefits in games such as Unreal. However, major changes to the Microsoft Windows operating system, by then the market leader, made many older DOS-based games unplayable on Windows NT, and later, Windows XP (without using an emulator, such as DOSbox). Home computer games became popular following the video game crash of 1983, particularly in Europe, leading to the era of the "bedroom coder". The CD-ROM had much larger storage capacity than floppies, helped reduce software piracy, and was less expensive to produce.
In December 1992 Computer Gaming World reported that DOS accounted for 82% of computer-game sales in 1991, compared to Macintosh's 8% and Amiga's 5%. Although both Apple and IBM tried to avoid customers associating their products with "game machine"s, the latter acknowledged that VGA, audio, and joystick options for its PS/1 computer were popular. In 1991, id Software produced an early first-person shooter, Hovertank 3D, which was the company's first in their line of highly influential games in the genre. IBM, the world's largest computer company, introduced the IBM Personal Computer (PC) in 1981. Also in 1989, the FM Towns computer included built-in PCM sound, in addition to a CD-ROM drive and 24-bit color graphics. Later games combined textual commands with basic graphics, as seen in the SSI Gold Box games such as Pool of Radiance, or Bard's Tale for example.
Mordor has three enormous mountain ranges surrounding it, from the north, from the west and from the south.
fpv quadcopter The mountains both protected the land from an unexpected invasion by any of the people living in those directions and kept those living in Mordor from escaping. Tolkien was reported to have identified Mordor with the volcano of Stromboli off Sicily. Three sides of Mordor were bounded by mountain ranges, arranged in a rough rectangle: the Ered Lithui (translated as 'Ash Mountains') on the north, and the Ephel Dúath (literally, "Fence of Shadow") on the west and the south. In the northwest the pass of Cirith Gorgor led into the enclosed plain of Udûn. Sauron built the Black Gate of Mordor (the Morannon) across the pass, joining the Towers of the Teeth, two earlier guard towers built by Gondor to keep a watch on this entrance. The passage through the inner side of Udûn into the interior of Mordor was guarded by another gate, the Isenmouthe. Outside the Morannon lay the Dagorlad or Battle Plain.
More than a third of games sold in North America were for the PC, twice as many as those for the Apple II and even outselling those for the Commodore 64. First sold in 1977, Microchess eventually sold over 50,000 copies on cassette tape. Yamaha began manufacturing FM synth boards for computers in the early-mid-1980s, and by 1985, the NEC and FM-7 computers had built-in FM sound. The first PC sound cards, such as AdLib's Music Synthesizer Card, soon appeared in 1987. Later games combined textual commands with basic graphics, as seen in the SSI Gold Box games such as Pool of Radiance, or Bard's Tale for example. These cards allowed IBM PC compatible computers to produce complex sounds using FM synthesis, where they had previously been limited to simple tones and beeps.